Guide on Arterial and Venous Vascular Diagnostics

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Download our guide to arterial and venous measurement applications and their interpretation, together with parameters, reference values, normal and pathological test examples here.


The guide contains information on measurement principles, parameters (with reference values) and normal vs. pathological test examples on the following topics:

Parameters and indicators

  • ABI – Ankle Brachial Index
  • TBI – Toe Brachial Index
  • PWI™ – Pulse Wave Index
  • Finger/toe pressure and more

Arterial tests

  • PVR – Pulse Wave Recording (4 and 8 channels)
  • TOPP Method (Tissue Optical Perfusion Pressure)
  • OPO – Optical Pulse Oscillography
  • OAP – Optical Arterial Pressure
  • Exercise Test
  • TOS Test (Thoracic Outlet Syndrome)

Venous tests

  • D-PPG Muscle Pump Test (Venous Reflux)
  • VOP – Venous Occlusion Plethysmography